Question: When a player is tipping the ball, in what circumstances would you call a catch/throw?
Answer: Let’s say for example that the player’s wrist is parallel to the floor and not in a forward motion.
Rule 9.2.2 states that the ball must not be caught and/or thrown. It can rebound in any direction. Rule 13.1.2 says that during an attack hit, tipping is permitted only if the ball is cleanly hit, and not caught or thrown.
As referees, we must clearly be able to see we saw the ball caught or thrown when a player is tipping the ball. At no time will we judge the body position, or the location of the wrist or hand in relation to the net or to the ball. Clearly, ball handling is difficult to assess as we begin our journey as a volleyball referee!
But with experience, all referees understand what a caught or thrown ball looks like! Good luck in your officiating!